Goiter is defined as a condition of the enlargement of the thyroid gland that can lead to swelling the lower part of the neck, causing abnormal functioning in production of thyroid hormone in most cases.
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Goiter and pregnancy
Since goiter is associated with either hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, it is for the pregnant women to talk to their doctor immediately and treat accordingly to the result of diagnosis to prevent the complications caused by the diseases. In some cases, they can cause difficulty of breathing if the swelling are growth large enough to block the airway or the cells of the thyroid gland have become malignant.
Types of goiter
Types of goiter are differentiated according to underlined symptoms
1. Hypothyroidism (please read hypothyroidism in pregnancy)
It happens in most cases as a result of the necessity of producing more thyroid hormones, causing swelling of thyroid tissue.
2. Toxic multinodular goiter
Toxic multinodular goieter is a form of hyperthyroidism as result of a small nodules in the thyroid gland have produced too much hormones (please read hyperthyroidism in pregnancy)
It is important for pregnant women to rule out the enlargement of thyroid gland are caused by cancerous cells.(Please read thyroid cancer for general information)
4. Iodine and Selenium deficiency
In Most cases, it is dueiodine and Selenium deficiency and happens mostly in the under developed world population.
Classification of goiter
The classification depend on the growth and size of the swelling of the thyroid gland
A. Growth patterns.
1. Uninodular (struma uninodosa)
Either inactive or a toxic nodule
2. Multinodular (struma nodosa)
Either inactive or toxic multinodular goiter
3. Diffuse (struma diffuse)
Enlargement of with the whole thyroid gland
1. Class I
Found only by palpation, otherwise, it is completely hidden.
2. Class II
It can be easily seen.
3. Class III -
The lumps or swelling has become very large that can lead to pain behind the sternum and compression marks
The patterns and sizes will be become necessary to classify the stage and grade of the tumor if diagnosis later indicated that the swelling is caused by malignant of the cells of thyroid gland ( Please read thyroid cancer for general information)
Symptoms of Goiter
In some women, the swelling of thyroid gland has caused no symptoms, if the swelling is not associated with hormonal abnormalities. On the other hands, symptoms are depended to the association specific diseases.
In general, most symptoms are enlargement of thyroid gland without going into specific underlined diseases
1. Difficulty breathing and swallowing
As result of the enlargement has growth large enough to interfere with breathing and eating.
2. Hoarse voice
As a result of enlargement has interfered with voice box.
3. lump on the front of the neck
Caused by swelling of the thyroid gland
4. Sore throat
Causes and risk factors
Depending to the types of goiter as mentioned above.
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