Abortion is a type of medical termination of pregnancy procedure by the removal or expulsion of a fetus from the uterus during the first half of gestation, 20 weeks or less and is weighted less than less 500grams. It can be selective with the used of induced medicine (abortion) or therapeutic as caused by complication (miscarriage).
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Types of abortion
There are 2 types of abortion, medical and surgical abortion, depending to the stage of pregnancy. It is for a woman safety to plan for unwanted pregnancy as early as possible. Late stage of abortion can be danger can increase the risk of complication.
1. Medical abortion
Medical abortion is the use of medicine to terminate pregnancy orally or injection, depending to the stage of pregnancy. If the pregnancy is less than 49 days old, Mifeprex (RU-486), the abortion pill can be prescribed by you doctor for early pregnancy termination, and the visit the doctor office or clinic again with Misoprostol to induce labor.
2. Surgical abortion
Surgical abortion can be done in the doctor office or clinic, but in Canada, it has to be done in public hospitals. Types of surgery are depending to the stage of pregnancy.
The weeks of pregnancy can be determine by ultrasound.
A. Vacuum aspiration if less than 16 weeks
Before giving the injection anesthesia and medicine to dilate the cervix, the cervix is examined by a speculum then a small, hollow tube attached to an aspirator machine is inserted into the uterus to remove the fetus after your cervix is dilated with injection of medicine. Your doctor will make sure there is no remain in the uterus with a curette before the surgery is completed.
B. Dilation and evacuation (D&E) (TOP or STOP)(Between the 13th and 24th week of pregnancy)
Similiar to the above procedure, dilation and evacuation (D&E) is a method associated with the dilation of the cervix (a day before surgery, with the insertion of either a curette or forceps) and surgical evacuation of the fetus from the uterus (the next day). Your doctor will make sure there is no remain in the uterus with a curette before the surgery is completed.
C. Intact dilation and extraction (over 20 weeks)
Similiar to the D&E, Intact dilation and extraction most of time is done in late term pregnancy as a fetus is developed enough to require dilation of the cervix for its extraction as a whole.
Depending to the safety of abortion, the possible complications can be
1. Acute Hematometra
It is usually happened within hours after abortion as the result of retain tissue causing abdominal cramps and pain, enlarged uterus.
Due to infection of the endometrium caused by infection of the uterus due to surgery.
3. Dilation and evacuation is common caused of uterine perforation and lacerations.
4. Heavy bleeding
Prolonged heavy bleeding can be caused by tissue remained in the uterus or as a result of damage to the cervix or uterus.
5. Cervical damage due to cervical injury.
6. Anesthesia complication.
7. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea may be caused medicine used for cervical dilation.
8. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
It is rarely happened in a safety abortion, but abortion can lead to infertility as a result of inflammation of uterus and ovaries caused by chlamydia organism.
***Please note abortion is not associated with breast cancer including the World Health Organization, the U.S. National Cancer Institute, the American Cancer Society, and the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
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