Wednesday, September 14, 2011

Women's Health - Hormone Estrogen

Estrogen is a female sex hormone is defined as a group of compounds for its function in regulating in the estrous cycle of women after puberty.

A. Reproductive Organs
1. Promote female reproductive system
Estrogen promotes female reproductive system beginning in the puberty by increasing pulsatile secretion of the hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), which stimulates the release of gonadotropins and in turn gonadal activity, leading to the growth of breasts and other female characteristics. In a study of "Inducing puberty" by Delemarre EM, Felius B, Delemarre-van de Waal HA., posted in PubMed, researchers indicated that sex steroids will induce development of the secondary sex characteristics alone, while combined administration of gonadotropins and GnRH may induce gonadal development including fertility.

2. Accelerate metabolism
Estrogen enhances metabolism to allow the body of the women to grow, reproduce, maintain the structures and survival of the human species, adapt to the change of environments to sustain living, etc.. According to the study of "Differential roles of estrogen receptors α and β in control of B-cell maturation and selection" by Hill L, Jeganathan V, Chinnasamy P, Grimaldi C, Diamond B., posted in PubMed, researchers found that engagement of either estrogen receptor α or β can alter B-cell maturation, but only engagement of estrogen receptor α is a trigger for autoimmunity. Thus, maturation and selection are regulated differentially by estrogen. These observations have therapeutic implications.

3. Muscle mass, Abnormal fat distribution
According to the study of 64-week prospective cohort trial evaluated the effects of 20-mg oestradiol implants, replaced every 4 months, in healthy postmenopausal women aged 45-65 years. Of 20 implant and 14 control subjects who remained in the trial at 32 weeks, 13 implant and seven controls continued to 64 weeks, conducted by University of Sydney Royal North Shore Hospital, posted in PubMed, researchers concluded that The abdominal fat-to-lean soft tissue ratio decreased by 18% in implant subjects ( p<0.001), but did not change in controls ( p<0.05 implants versus controls). Neither group displayed significant changes in weight, fat or appendicular skeletal muscle mass. The 32-week data were consistent with these results. Hence, oestradiol implant therapy can reduce abdominal adiposity and could lower the risk of obesity-related metabolic disorders.

4. Increase bone density
Deficiency or reduced estrogen levels in post menopause women can lead to bone density loss.
According to the study of "A protective effect of Curcuma comosa Roxb. on bone loss in estrogen deficient mice" by Weerachayaphorn J, Chuncharunee A, Mahagita C, Lewchalermwongse B, Suksamrarn A, Piyachaturawat P., posted in PubMed, researchers suugested that suggest that C. comosa prevents bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency. Therefore, C. comosa would be a potential alternative treatment for prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

5. Endometrial growth
Women's endomyrium undergoes certain change after puberty to adapt to the estrous cycle and pregnancy. According to the study conducted by Research laboratory at Kansai Medical University of 16 patients undergoing hysterectomy for benign reasons, in vitro, posted in PubMed, researchers found that the E(2) or OHT stimulates VEGF production and concurrently attenuates sVEGFR-1 production in ESCs. This consequential increase in VEGF:sVEGFR-1 ratio might enhance the biological effects of VEGF on the angiogenic environment in human endometrium.

6. Uterine growth
In the stage of estrous cycle, women uterus undergoes marked morphological, physiological and functional changes as a result of the levels of estrogen produced by the body. According to the study of "Characterisation of mouse interferon-induced transmembrane protein-1 gene expression in the mouse uterus during the oestrous cycle and pregnancy" by Park HJ, Kuk IS, Kim JH, Kim JH, Song SJ, Choi BC, Kim B, Kim NH, Song H., posted in PubMed, researchers concluded that Expression of Ifitm1 mRNA was higher in response to PMSG than other hormones investigated. These results suggest that Ifitm1 may be involved in uteri physiology, although the mechanisms involved in the regulation of this gene expression and function in the uterus remain unknown.

7. Vaginal lubrication
Vaginal lubrication is one of characteristic of hormone estrogen for women in per-manopause stage to moistens the vagina and to protect it especial during sexual intercourse. Insufficient lubrication or vaginal dryness in women can cause painful sexual intercourse disorder. According to the sudy of "Treatment options for female sexual arousal disorder: part II" by Feldhaus-Dahir M., posted in PubMed, researcher wrote that Female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) occurs when a woman experiences distress due to the inability to attain or maintain adequate vaginal lubrication. Many treatments are still under investigation, and at this time, there are no FDA-approved medications available for the treatment of FSAD. Treatment options include "off-label" medications, vaginal estrogen, compounded preparations, and over-the-counter products.

8. Thicken the vaginal wall
As a result of level of estrogen, the vaginal wall is thickened to provide favorable condition for conception by moisturizing the vaginal and protecting the vaginal during sexual intercourse, In a study of The study included 89 patients undergoing vaginal surgery for urogynecological conditions, conducted by Mainz University Hospital, Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology,posted in PubMed, researchers found that menopausal women showed a higher amount of PR expression in vaginal tissue than premenopausal women. Women with no endocrine treatment showed a lower amount of ER β expression in vaginal tissue.

9. Etc.

B. Maintenance of vessels and skin
It is easy to understand that estrogen maintain the healthy and vessels and skin for pre-menopause women, as ageing is considered as a progressive reduction in function and reserve capacity of skin and vessel tissue. According to the study of "The effect of menopause on the skin and other connective tissues", by Calleja-Agius J, Brincat M., posted in PubMed, researchers wrote that oestrogen has profound effects on connective tissue turnover, no matter the site. It has been shown that menopause has similar effects on the connective tissue of the carotid artery media, intervertebral discs and bones.

C. Protein synthesis
Protein is also known as polypeptides, they are are organic compounds made of amino acids and can be found in meat, beans, milk, eggs or any source of food which provides our body the raw materials to build its own protein. Since our body can not store protein, we require to take them regularly. Researchers found that intake of plant base protein is more healthy than animal base protein, because it helps to prevent high blood pressure, reduce cholesterol, heart diseases and strokes, if taking together with complex carbohydrate.

Protein synthesis is defined as a complicate process of cells building or manufacturing proteins. You can view the step of protein synthesis from this link. According to the study of "Estrogen stimulates postsynaptic density-95 rapid protein synthesis via the Akt/protein kinase B pathway" by Akama KT, McEwen BS., posted in PubMed, researchers found that These results demonstrate an essential role for Akt in estrogen-stimulated dendritic spine protein expression, describe for the first time a signal transduction pathway in PSD-95 expression, and delineate a novel, molecular mechanism by which ovarian hormones might translationally regulate synaptogenesis via activating protein synthesis for dendritic function.

D. Coagulation
Coagulation is defined as a complicate process of forming blood clots to reduce the risk of bleeding that can cause blood vessels damage and health of the patient. In a study of in 27 postmenopausal women at baseline and after 2 and 12 weeks of treatment. Oral and transdermal estradiol induced similar increases in serum free estradiol concentrations in measuring the measures of coagulation, fibrinolysis, inflammation and serum lipids and lipoproteins, conducted by University of Helsinki, Finland, posted in PubMed, researchers found that oral estradiol increased markers of fibrinolytic activity, decreased serum soluble E-selectin levels and induced potentially antiatherogenic changes in lipids and lipoproteins. In contrast to these beneficial effects, oral estradiol changed markers of coagulation towards hypercoagulability, and increased serum CRP concentrations.

E. Lipid
Lipid is defined as fat in the blood, including HDL(high density lipoproteins), triglyceride, LDL(low density lipoproteins), etc. levels of estrogen really affect the levels of fat in the blood as one can easily see through the levels of estrogen and lipid in a woman menstrual cycle. According to the study of "Variations in lipid levels according to menstrual cycle phase: clinical implications. Mumford SL, Dasharathy S, Pollack AZ, Schisterman EF., posted in PubMed, researchers wrote that Overall, lipoprotein cholesterol levels were observed to vary in response to changing estrogen levels. Taken together, the evidence suggests that total cholesterol and LDL-C tend to be highest during the follicular phase and to decline during the luteal phase, with HDL C highest around ovulation. Based on these findings, the menstrual cycle phase should be taken into account when evaluating lipoprotein cholesterol levels among reproductive-aged women. Measuring cholesterol levels during menses is recommended for consistent comparisons as this phase can be more reliably identified than other phases, although women within National Cholesterol Education Program acceptable ranges, but near the boundaries when tested during menses, should undergo additional tests.

F. Fluid balancing
Estrogen plays an important role in balancing the fluid in the body. According to the study of "Estrogen and the central control of body fluid balance" by Curtis KS., posted in PubMed, researchers indicated that Taken together, the body of evidence amassed from more than 40 years of investigations suggests that the central actions of estrogen influence body fluid regulation and, more specifically, compensatory responses to perturbations of osmotic or volume balance in two interrelated ways.

G. Estrogen and Cortisol
Cortisol is a glucocorticoid produced by the adrenal gland. It is one the hormone that work together with melatonin to regulate the pattern of sleep and awake. Estrogenhas a very close relationshion ship with the increase of levels of cortisol in the reproductive years. According to the stdy of "Cortisol, Estradiol-17{beta} and Progesterone Secretion within the First Hour after Awakening in Women with Regular Menstrual Cycles" by Ahn RS, Choi JH, Choi BC, Kim JH, Lee SH, Sung SS., posted in PubMed, researchers found that The areas under curves showing the E2 and P4 levels from the time immediately after awakening to 60 min after awakening (i.e., E2auc and P4auc) in women with regular menstrual cycles were greater than those in postmenopausal women.

H. Estrogen and Sex Hormone Binding Globulin
SHBG is a glycoprotein, produced by the liver to bind to sex hormones testosterone and estradiol. In an abstract of the study of "The ability of hydroxylated estrogens (2-OH-E2 and 4-OH-E2) to increase of SHBG gene, protein expression and intracellular levels in MCF-7 cells line" by Gregoraszczuk EL, Ptak A, Wrobel A., posted in PubMed, researchers filed the result that 4-OH-E2 in high doses and 2-OH-E2 in the highest dose, while 17β-estradiol in all doses used increased intracellular but not extracellular SHBG levels. Both metabolites increased SHBG mRNA expression, the rank order of potency being E2 > 4-OH-E2 > 2-OH-E2. Both E2 and its metabolites increased SHBG protein expression.

I. Gastrointestinal tract
Gastrointestinal tract forms a part of digestive system and refers to the stomach and intestine or digestive system of all the structures from the mouth to the anus. According to the researcher of the study of "Estrogen, progesterone and the gastrointestinal tract" by Eliakim R, Abulafia O, Sherer DM., posted in PubMed, researchers indicated that This review provides an abundance of data supporting that estrogen and progesterone have both beneficial and detrimental effects on the esophagus, stomach, gallbladder, and small and large intestine.

J. Melanin
Melanin is a is a pigment that gives the human skin and hair color. It is easlily to understand the relattionship of estrogen and melanin, as thw women age, the reduction of levels of estrogen cause the hair color to turn gray. According to the study of Estrogen increases hair pigmentation in female recessive yellow mice" by Hirobe T, Kiuchi M, Wakamatsu K, Ito S., posted in PubMed, researchers concluded that suggest that estrogen is the main factor in determining the higher content of eumelanin and pheomelanin in female hair of Mc1r(e)/Mc1r(e) mice.

K. Estrogen and the Lung
Believe it or not, estrogen plays an important role in protect the women lung against diseases. According to the study of Estrogen Rescues Pre-existing Severe Pulmonary Hypertension in Rats" by Umar S, Iorga A, Matori H, Nadadur RD, Li J, Maltese F, van der Laarse A, Eghbali M., posted in PubMed, researchers concluded that estrogen rescues pre-existing severe PH in rats by restoring lung and RV structure and function that is maintained even after removal of estrogen. Estrogen-induced rescue of PH is associated with stimulation of cardiopulmonary neoangiogenesis, suppression of inflammation, fibrosis and RV-hypertrophy. Furthermore, estrogen-rescue is likely mediated through estrogen receptor-b.

L. Estrogen and Fetal development
Believe or not, estrogen Estrogen turns play a central role in maintaining pregnancy and fetal development In the abstract of the study of "Estrogen regulation of placental angiogenesis and fetal ovarian development during primate pregnancy" by Albrecht ED, Pepe GJ., posted in PubMed, researchers wrote that this review will describe the developmental processes required for placental vascularization and fetal follicular maturation and recent studies which show that estrogen has an important role in regulating these events.

M. Etc.

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